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Dholavira

Dholavira is the archaeological excavation site of an ancient city . It is amongst the five largest Harrapan ruins of Indus civilization discovered in the Indian subcontinent. The site was occupied from 2650 BCE, till about 2100 BCE. Dholavira is a Tentative UNESCO world heritage site.

Dholavira is a relatively recent discovery. This Indus city has been excavated by the Archaeological Survey of India since 1989.An impressive settlement of the Indus valley civilization, the city embodies the tale of the rise and fall of a civilisation that once flourished across, India, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
"Dholavira is characterised by monumental architecture, massive fortifications, the use of dressed stones, elaborate water management, and meticulous town-planning of a unique kind," says Michel Danino, independent researcher on the Harappan civilisation.
Dholavira is located in the island of Khadir in the Rann of Kutch in Gujrat (a seasonal salt marsh), the area was likely significantly different during its period of habitation than it is today.
Built according to a geometric plan, it comprises of three well established divisions - the citadel, middle town and lower town. The excavation has found a large number of gold, silver and terracotta sretefacts and ornaments. Its link to the Mesopotamian civilisation or the modern day Iraq has also been established.
Dholavira was a major trade centre between Gujarat, Sindh and Punjab.The people of this civilisation excelled in the engineering works. It leaves behind most other civilizations in town planning and development. Spectacular water harvesting systems, dams and reservoirs of many sizes were built in a very planned manner. A network of inter-connected drains were made to harvest storm water and collected at a central place to be used later shows exemplary planning. Dholavira had a very planned sanitation system with well developed toilets and  sanitary pits. Open areas for social gatherings and ceremonies were also provided with an accurate precision. A number of housing sectors were also planned in the city. Many gates have been found to be present and all are designed differently. The cemetery covers a large area and has intact cenotaphs of rectangular and circular structures. The evidence of Harappans having various ethnic and tribal practices for funeral ceremonies is also evident.
Dholavira Signboard
Another important find is a big 3 meter signboard with around ten 37 centimeter high letters in the local language. The board was made of wood and the letters of mineral gypsum..  The signboard were probably placed above the gate of the citadel .Decline
The mystery behind Dholavira’ decline is still being debated but there is probability that a series of climatic altered the landscape and created the salt marsh in monsoon and perched desert in dry season, making it difficult to inhabit.
Dholavira provides an opporcunity to have a look into the lifestyle of these people who existed around 5,000 years ago. It shows their mastery in various feilds be it town planning, trading or community living.

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Bhuj
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Probably the largest wild life sanctuary in India with an area of approx 4950 km2, Little Rann of Kutch is one of the most remarkable and unique landscape of its kind in the entire world and renowned for the Asiatic Wild Ass Sanctuary.
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Bhuj, the capital of the former native state of Kutch is now the head quarter of the Kutch district. It is a fascinating old walled city with labyrinthine alleyways, old palaces with intricately carved wooden pavilions, and striking, brightly decorated Hindu temples.
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On the banks of Rukmani river lies a small town of Mandvi in Gujarat. It was once considered the summer retreat of the erstwhile Maharajas of Kutch. Mandvi has some of the loveliest unspoilt beaches in the western part of India and is also well known for its unique tradition of hand crafted ship building.
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Made up of a huge white expanse of salt offering a breathtaking landscape, the Great Rann of Kutch is an important destination for wildlife lovers and serious birdwatchers.
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Ahmedabad is the largest city in the state of Gujarat. The bustling metropolis is a fusion of old world charm and emerging modernity. It has a rich history of Muslim heritage.
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Season Min. Temp. Max. Temp.
Summer 23 °C 43 °C
Winter 10 °C 25 °C
Weather of Kutch is tropical monsoon with an average annual rainfall of approximately 14 inches. In Summer temperature can reach up to 48°c. In Winter temperature ranges from 12 °c to 27 °c.
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